Unit 11: Our Past




The First People


The first people were hunter and gatherers. They were also nomads. They did not know how to make fire.





After many years another group of people, neanderthals,  evolved. They learned how to make fire and they used more sophisticated weapons and tools. They also used a simple language to communicate.




Cor-Magnons were the first homo-sapiens. They had the same body shape as us today. The made even more sophisticated tools and weapons like fishooks and bows and arrows. They learnt to store food for the winter and they built houses from logs and stone. They also began to form bigger social groups and they learnt how to paint and sculpt.



Pre-Roman History


Before the Romans there were six different tribes that settled in Spain.



The Celts


The Celts lived in the northern and western areas and had a great knowledge of how to use iron.


The Celtiberians


The Celtiberians settled in the central zones. They were influenced by both the iberians and the celts.


The Iberians


The Iberians settled in the southern and eastern areas. They had an advanced culture and lived in cities.


The Phoenicians


The Phoenicians lived to the east of the Mediterranean and on the western edge of Asia Minor. They were traders and excellent sailors. They founded Cadiz and Almuñecar.


The Greeks


The Greeks founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean.


The Carthaginians


The Carthaginians lived in the north of Africa. They were traders and found the city of Cartagenas.


Rome and Hispania



The Romans


The Romans invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 218 BC. They called it Hispania and divided it into three parts:









The Roman Influence


During the Roman Empire the Spanish economy grew. Gold, wool, olive oil and wine were exported to the rest of the empire.


The Romans built many roads and aqueducts.


They also founded important gold, iron, tin and lead mines.





The Middle Ages


The Middle Ages was between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. It had a system called a Feudal System. The system consisted of kings, lords, knights and peasants.


People lived in small communities in a manor. A manor was a castle owned by a lord. It had a church, a village and the surrounding farms and forests.


The Catholic Church was very powerful at this time. It controlled most of the educational institutions during the Middle Ages.



The Middle Ages in the Iberian Peninsula


Germanic Invasions


When the Roman Empire fell, the Suebi, Vandals and Alans took control of part of Hispania.



The Visigoths


Un the 5th century AD, the Visigoths conquered Hispania. The Visigoth Kingdom lasted until 711 AD.





In 711 AD the Moors from the north of Africa invaded Hispania.



The Reconquest and the Catholic Monarchs


During the Reconquest, the Christian Kingdoms began to fight against the Muslim kingdoms. The Reconquest lasted around 700 years.


Isabel and Fernando united the whole of Christian Spain which became Portugal, Aragón and Castilla.